Research | Victims of Communism

Victims of Communism — Memorial Foundation


The Crimean Tatars as Victims of Communism

By Greta Uehling Introduction The Crimean Tatars are a Muslim Turkic people originating on the Crimean peninsula, a part of southern Ukraine, but the territory has been under Russian occupation since February 2014. While the Crimean Tatars are sometimes described as “descendants of the Golden Horde” or “arriving” on the peninsula in the thirteenth century in […]

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North Korea Under Communism 1948-2014

By Suzanne Scholte Introduction Viewing a satellite photo of the Korean peninsula at night, one can see what communism has meant for the people of North Korea.  There is a wide dark black band between the border of China and Russia and the border of South Korea suggesting perhaps a body of water or an […]

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The Chinese Laogai

By Harry Wu The Chinese word laogai, meaning “reform through labor,” refers to the most extensive system of forced labor camps in the world — modeled after the Soviet gulag — which has spanned the territory of China since the early days of the communist regime. The Laogai Research Foundation has identified 1,045 laogai camps […]

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The War on Religion

By Paul Kengor As Mikhail Gorbachev aptly stated, the Soviet communist state carried out a comprehensive “war on religion.” 1 He lamented that the Bolsheviks, his predecessors, even after the civil war ended in the early 1920s, during a time of “peace,” had “continued to tear down churches, arrest clergymen, and destroy them. This was […]

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Gulag: An Introduction

By Anne Applebaum The Gulag was the vast network of labor camps which was once scattered across the length and breadth of the Soviet Union, from the islands of the White Sea to the shores of the Black Sea, from the Arctic circle to the plains of Central Asia, from Murmansk to Vorkuta to Kazakhstan, […]

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