Chapter 2

Chapter Sources


1. “Russia is Slipping Back into an Authoritarian Empire,” Spiegel International, February 2, 2007,

2. David Satter, Age of Delirium: The Decline and Fall of the Soviet Union (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), 39-40.

3. Ibid, 40.

4. Ibid, 40.

5. Sean McMeekin, The Russian Revolution: A New History (New York: Basic Books, 2017), 201-04, 213-17.

6. Alain Besancon, “The View from East of Eden,” Encounter (June 13, 1980).  See also, “On the Difficulty of Defining the Soviet Regime,” in The Great Lie: Classic and Recent Appraisals of Ideology and Totalitarianism (Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2011), 39.

7. Alain Besancon, A Century of Horrors (Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2018), xv.

8. Ibid, 40. 

9. Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Steven Lukes, Stephen Bronner, Vladimir Tismaneanu, Saskia Sassen, and ed. Jeffrey Isaac, The Communist Manifesto (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012), 83, 

10. Mark M. Lowenthal, Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy 8th Edition, (New Haven: CQ Press, 2019).  See Lowenthal’s discussions on the nature of Soviet and other foreign intelligence agencies and security services.

11. Stephane Courtois et al., The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 740.

12. Michael Wildt, Revolutions and Counter-Revolutions: 1917 and Its Aftermath from a Global Perspective (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2017), 58.

13. Orlando Figes, The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin’s Russia (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007), 275-315.  See also, Courtois, 198.

14. Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar (New York: Alfred Knopf,2004), 184-85.

15. Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 121.

16. Richard Pipes, Communism: A History (New York: Modern Library, 2001), 64 and Paul Gregory, Philip Schroder and Konstantine Sonin, “Dictators, Repression and the Median Citizen: An “Eliminations Model” of Stalin’s Terror (Data from the NKVD Archives)” Centre for Economic and Financial Research At New Economic School Working Paper No 9, November 2006, 7-9. 

17. Ibid, Gregory, 8.

18. Montefiore, 316-317.

19. Courtois,186. Courtois estimates that 2 million died in Gulag camps however, Courtois claims that the Gulag deaths number is inflated.  J. Arch Getty, Gabor Rittersporn, and Victor Zemskov’s “Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence” American Historical Review 98 no. 4 (1993): 1017-1049 claims 1,053,829 citizens died in the Soviet camps from 1934 to 1953 not including labor colonies.  Michael Ellman estimates that the number rises to 1.7 million gulag deaths if labor colonies are included in “Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments.”  For total number of citizens placed in the Gulags see, Stephen Wheatcroft, “Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data-Not the Last Word,” Europe-Asia Studies 51, no. 2 (1999): 320, Wheatcroft estimates that 14 million Soviet citizens passed through the Gulag from 1930-1953.

20. John Koehler, Stasi: The Untold Story of the East German Secret Police (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999), 7-9. Many historians estimate that the number of officers and informants reaches up to 500,000; however, due to the destruction of documents on Stasi agents and informants, the true numbers may never be known.

21. Courtois, 586-588.   

22. Philip Short, Pol Pot: The History of a Nightmare (London: John Murray Press, 2004), 326 and 593.    

23. Ibid, 593.

24. Helen Jarvis, et al., Genocide in Cambodia: Documents from the Trial of Pol Pot and Leng Sary (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), 531.

25. Ibid, 164.

26. Ben Kiernan, “The Demography of Genocide in Southeast Asia: The Death Tolls in Cambodia,” Critical Asian Studies 35, no. 4 (2003): 586. This number is debated, the consensus is in the range of 1.5-3 million deaths from the genocide.

27. Archie Brown, The Rise and Fall of Communism (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2009), 316-17 and Courtois, 495.

28. John Bowman, Colombia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture (New York, NY: Colombia University Press, 2000), 72.

29. Yang Jisheng, Tombstone: The Great Chinese Famine, 1958-1962 (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2012), 240.

30. Sigrid Schmalzer, Red Revolution, Green Revolution: Scientific Farming in Socialist China (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 240.

31. Ibid, 240.

32. See Chapter 7 on the 1932-33 Holodomor in the Soviet Union for another example.

33. McMeekin, 213.

34. Norman Lowe, Mastering Twentieth-Century Russian History (London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020), 155.

35. Figes, 20-31.

36. Ibid, 21.

37. Robert Davies and Stephen Wheatcroft, “Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932-1933: A Reply to Ellman,” Europe-Asia Studies 58, no. 4 (2006): 627, and James E. Mace ”The American Press and the Ukrainian Famine in Genocide Watch, ed Helen Fain (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992) 119-20.

38. Pipes, 57 and Mikhail Heller and Aleksandr Nekrich, Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present (New York: Summit Books, 1986), 201.

39. Pipes, 57.

40. Anne Applebaum, The Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944-1956 (New York: Anchor Books, 2013), 174-91.

41. Montefoire, 131-41 and Vladimir Lenin letter to Maxim Gorky as found in the Library of Congress,

42. David Shambaugh, “China’s Propaganda System, Processes and Efficacy,” The China Journal, no. 57 (2007): 26,

43. Ibid, 27.

44. Ibid, 50.

45. Ibid, 52.

46. Victor Cha, The Impossible State: North Korea, Past and Future (New York, NY: Ecco Press, 2012), 73.  See also, Peter H. Lee, et al, Sources of Korean Tradition: From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries (New York, NY: Colombia University Press, 1997), 419.  Lee describes how the Cult of Personality surrounding Kim Il-Sung was created to glorify the heroic struggle of the Kim family.

47. Helen-Louise Hunter, Kim Il-Song’s North Korea (CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999), 16.

48. Eddie Burdick, Three Days in the Hermit Kingdom: An American Visits North Korea (NC: McFarland, 2014), 248.

49. David Kang, “They Think They’re Normal: Enduring Questions and New Research on North Korea,” International Security 36, no. 3 (2011): 155,

50. Satter, XV-XVI.

51. The Demolition of the T.G. Masaryk Monument at Lovesice near Prerov, field report, Europeana, accessed June 30, 2022

52. “Torture Methods Used by the Cheka (1924),” Alpha History, accessed June 30, 2022,


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